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A.1. Previewing

Previewing adalah suatu cara untuk melihat teks secara global. Tujuan previewing semata-mata untuk mendapatkan informasi umum mengenai kandungan suatu teks, terutama topik teks bacaan. Dari hasil pengamatan Mikulecky dan Jeffries (1996), melakukan previewing sebelum membaca teks memberikan kontribusi penting pada proses pemahaman informasi dengan cepat. Cara demikian bahkan mampu membantu pembaca mengikuti alur pikir penulis teks tersebut. Sekalipun previewing hanya memerlukan waktu beberapa detik atau menit, cara ini terbukti mampu memberikan investasi penting dalam menghemat waktu membaca (Mikulecky dan Jeffries, 1996).

Previewing dilakukan dengan cara melihat kalimat-kalimat pertama dan kalimat terakhir pada masing-masing paragraf. Hal ini karena pola penulisan orang-orang berbasis bahasa Inggris punya kecenderungan induktif, “straight to the point” (Ballard dan Clanchy, 1996) Dalam hal demikian, kalimat topik hampir selalu muncul pada kalimat-kalimat pertama masing-masing paragraf. Jika topik bacaan tidak dapat disimpulkan dari kalimat-kalimat awal, ada kemungkinan topik bacaan muncul pada bagian akhir paragraf. Untuk itulah dalam previewing Anda disarankan pula untuk melihat dengan cepat kalimat akhir pada masing-masing paragraph selain kalimat-kalimat awal masing-masing paragraf tersebut. Apabila fokus bacaan tidak juga diketemukan dari data kalimat-kalimat awal maupun akhir, maka dapat dipastikan bahwa topik bacaan tertulis secara tersirat. Pada kasus ini fungsi kalimat awal biasanya hanya untuk memberikan gambaran umum yang dipakai pengarang untuk mengantar pembaca ke fokus yang dia arahkan.

Although they are an inexpensive supplier of vitamins, minerals, and high-quality protein, eggs also contain a high level of blood cholesterol, one of the major causes of heart disease. One egg yolk, in fact, contains a little more than two-thirds of the suggested daily cholesterol limit. This knowledge has caused egg sales to plummet in recent years, which in turn has brought about the development of several alternatives to eating regular eggs. One alternative is to eat substitute eggs. These egg substitutes are not really eggs, but they look somewhat I ike eggs when they are cooked. They have the advantage of having lower cholesterol rates, and they can be scrambled or used in baking. One disadvantage, however, is that they are not good for frying, poaching, or boiling. A second alternative to regular eggs is a new type of egg, sometimes called “designer” eggs. These eggs are produced by hens that are fed low-fat diets consisting of ingredients such as canola oil, flax, and rice bran. In spite of their diets, however, these hens produce eggs that contain the same amount of cholesterol as regular eggs. Yet, the producers of these eggs claim that eating their eggs will not raise the blood cholesterol in humans.

Egg producers claim that their product has been portrayed unfairly. They cite scientific studies to back up their claim. And, in fact, studies on the relationship between eggs and human cholesterol levels have brought mixed results. It may be that it is not the type of egg that is the main determinant of cholesterol but the person who is eating the eggs. Some people may be more sensitive to cholesterol derived from food than other people. In fact, there is evidence that certain dietary fats stimulate the body's production of blood cholesterol. Consequently, while it still makes sense to limit one's intake of eggs, even designer eggs, it seems that doing this without regulating dietary fat will probably not help reduce the blood cholesterol level.


What is the main purpose of this passage?

(A) to inform people about the relationship between eggs and cholesterol
(B) to convince people to eat “designer” eggs and egg substitutes
(C) to persuade people that eggs are unhealthy and should not be eaten
(D) to introduce the idea that dietary fat increases the blood cholesterol level

Dengan melihat bagian awal dan akhir masing-masing paragraf di atas, dapat ditemukan data berupa kata-kata yang mengarah pada fokus tertentu. Kalimat pertama pada paragraph pertama, misalnya, mengarah pada eggs dan blood cholesterol. (Although they are an inexpensive supplier of vitamins, minerals, and high-quality protein, eggs also contain a high level of blood cholesterol, one of the major causes of heart disease) Bagian akhir paragraf pertama disebut-sebut pula tentang eggs dan cholesterol (Yet, the producers of these eggs claim that eating their eggs will not raise the blood cholesterol in humans) Demikian pula bagian awal paragraf ke dua yang menyebut-nyebut kata egg (Egg producers claim that their product has been portrayed unfairly); kemudian paragraf akhir yang menyebut-nyebut lagi eggs dan cholesterol (Consequently, while it still makes sense to limit one's intake of eggs, even designer eggs, it seems that doing this without regulating dietary fat will probably not help reduce the blood cholesterol level).

Saat mengerjakan soal, sekalipun membaca cepat menjadi tuntutan peserta tes AcEPT, tetap saja Anda harus berhati-hati atau sedikit agak pelan ketika membaca kalimat-kalimat awal bacaan. Hal ini karena pada umumnya fokus bacaan ditempatkan di bagian tersebut.

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